John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Occurrence and behaviour of chiral anti‐inflammatory drug naproxen in an aquatic environment

0
The present study reports on the occurrence and chiral behavior of the anti‐inflammatory drug (S)‐naproxen (NAP), (S)‐2‐(6‐methoxynaphthalen‐2‐yl)propionic acid, in an aquatic environment under field and laboratory conditions. (S)‐NAP was detected in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Tama River basin Tokyo at concentrations of 0.03–0.43 µg L−1 and 0.01–0.11 µg L−1, respectively. The concentrations of a major metabolite, 6‐O‐desmethyl NAP (DM‐NAP) were up to 0.47 and 0.56 µg L−1 in influents and effluents, respectively. (R)‐NAP was not detected in STP influents, whereas it was present in effluents, and the enantiomeric faction (EF = S/(S + R)) of NAP ranged from 0.88 to 0.91 Under laboratory conditions with activated sludge from STPs, rapid degradation of (S)‐NAP to DM‐NAP and chiral inversion of (S)‐ to (R)‐NAP were observed. During river die‐away experiments, degradation and chiral inversion of NAP were extremely slow. In addition, chiral inversion of (S)‐ to (R)‐NAP was not observed during photodegradation experiments. In the river receiving STP discharge, NAP and DM‐NAP concentrations reached 0.08 and 0.16 µg L−1, respectively. The EF of NAP in the river ranged from 0.84 to 0.98 and almost unchanged with increasing contribution of rainfall to river water. These results suggest that the absence and decrease of (R)‐NAP in river waters could indicate the inflow of untreated sewage. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

Customer comments

No comments were found for Occurrence and behaviour of chiral anti‐inflammatory drug naproxen in an aquatic environment. Be the first to comment!