Groundwater is a precious resource in Oman, which is designated “National Wealth” by Royal Decree. The concession agreement between Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) and the government gives PDO the right to explore and use groundwater. So far PDO has used groundwater only for maintaining camp operations. As the field is maturing, PDO is moving to enhanced oil recovery techniques, such as water flood and steam injection, both of which need large quantities of water. PDO also uses water to support its camp operations. The local legislation did not have a guideline for water abstraction for oil industry operations (including camp operations), which meant that inappropriate use of groundwater was possible and did occasionally occur.