On-site treatment of domestic wastewater using a small-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

A small-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland, located in North Greece, was designed and constructed to treat wastewater from a single-family residence. A three-year monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate the performance of this system. The monitoring campaigns were organized every 7 days. Water quality samples were collected at the inlet, at intermediate points (i.e. at the end of each treatment stage) and at the outlet of the system. Temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and DO were measured in-situ with the use of appropriate instruments at the same points of water sample collection. Water samples were analyzed for BOD, COD, TKN, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus (TP), ortho-phosphate (OP), total suspended solids (TSS) and total coliforms (TC). Mean removal efficiencies for the monitoring period were: 86.5% for BOD, 84.6% for COD, 83.7% for TKN, 82.2% for ammonia, 63.1% for OP, 63.3% for TP, 79.3% for TSS and 99.9% for TC. Furthermore, based on statistical testing, TKN, ammonia and TP removal efficiencies showed dependence on temperature. The paper presents facility description, study details and monitoring results. The study shows that the use of constructed wetlands in wastewater treatment is a good option for single-family residences in rural areas.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, horizontal subsurface flow, on-site wastewater treatment

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