This paper presents a real-time implementable optimisation-based energy management strategy for a series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). On the basis of the introduction of a transient fuel consumption model of the diesel Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and a battery equivalent fuel consumption model incorporating a charge-sustaining strategy, a novel Semi-Global Optimisation (SGO) problem is formulated to minimise the vehicle fuel consumption, which is defined over a relatively shorter time horizon characterised by the quasi-steady-state time constant of the diesel engine. A two-stage real-time optimisation algorithm is developed to solve this problem, including the precomputed Static Instantaneous Optimisation (SIO) to obtain the basic power distribution map, and the online adaptive dynamic compensation optimisation considering the transient loss of the diesel APU. Computer simulation work is carried out to evaluate the proposed energy management strategy.
Keywords: series hybrid vehicles, energy management, fuel economy, optimisation, optimal control, hybrid electric vehicles, HEV, alternative propulsion, fuel consumption, simulation