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Optimization of photolysis of diclofenac using a response surface methodology

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This study investigates the effects of environmental parameters such as UV intensity (X1, 2.1 ∼ 6.3 mW/cm2), Fe(III) (X2, 0 ∼ 0.94 mg/L), NO3 (X3, 0 ∼ 20 mg/L) and humic acid (X4, 0 ∼ 30 mg/L) on the removal efficiency of diclofenac (DCF, Y), and optimization using a response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD). According to analysis of variance and t-test results (p < 0.001), the proposed quadratic BBD model based on a total of 29 experimental runs fitted well to the experimental data. Moreover, the determination coefficient (R2 = 0.990) and adjusted determination coefficient (Ra2 = 0.981) indicated that this model is adequate with a high goodness-of-fit. Variables of X1, X2 and X3 had significant positive contributions (p < 0.001), while X4 had significant negative contribution to the DCF removal (p < 0.001). A Pareto analysis showed that X4 was the most important factor (57.18%) in DCF photolytic removal. The predicted and observed DCF removal were 94.98 and 94.2% under optimal conditions (X1 = 6.29 mW/cm2, X2 = 0.75 mg/L, X3 = 15.65 mg/L and X4 = zero), respectively. The RSM not only gives valuable information on the interactions between these photoreactive species (UV intensity, Fe(III), NO3, and humic acid) that influence DCF removal, but also identifies the optimal conditions for effective DCF removal in water.

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