Oxidation and volatilization of bromide by electrolysis in drinking water


To reduce the concentrations of brominated disinfection by-products, a process is presented here which removes bromide from a widely used surface water source, the California State Water Project (SWP). The process consists of oxidizing bromide to bromine and volatilizing the bromine. SWP water was passed through this unit under various conditions and the bromide was oxidized and volatilized under a variety of conditions. Five different reactor bodies with seventeen different configurations were tested. The reactors differed in the depth of the anode, in the distance between the anodes and, in the surface area of the anodes. Each reactor had SWP water pumped through the reactor at three or more different flows and at four or more different currents, producing 267 experimental conditions. Both reaction rates and removal efficiency increased with increasing current and were generally higher in the shallower reactors. The highest reaction rates were observed in the shallowest reactors and highest flow rates but the greatest efficiency was achieved is in a slightly deeper reactor at lower flows. This appears to have been the effect of the shallowest reactor having the smallest surface area that was easily saturated and but being closest to atmosphere, allowing the most rapid volatilization of bromine.

Keywords: bromide, disinfection by-products, drinking water, electrolysis, haloacetic acids, trihalomethanes

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