John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Oxidative stress response of the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles

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The present study investigated the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2‐NPs) on the oxidative stress response in Hydrilla verticillata. Macrophytes were exposed to different concentrations of TiO2‐NPs (0 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L) for 24 h, based on currently predicted levels of nano‐TiO2 in surface waters. Additionally, TiO2‐NPs with varying crystalline statuses were used to assess the potential influence of crystalline phases on oxidative stress responses. The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and activities of the antioxidative enzymes peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured and compared to a bulk counterpart. Although, POD was not considered as active, the results imply an activation of the enzymatic defense system as increased CAT and GR activities were observed. Exposure to bulk TiO2 revealed lower enzyme activities at all exposure concentrations, suggesting a nano‐specific influence on the antioxidative defense mechanisms in H. verticillata. Moreover, all TiO2‐NP concentrations resulted in a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, indicating a high GSH‐dependent metabolic activity to protect against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during nano‐TiO2 exposure. As the level of H2O2 was solely elevated after exposure to 10 mg/L of P25, it appears plausible that adaptive metabolic mechanisms of H. verticillata are able to cope with environmentally relevant concentrations of TiO2‐NPs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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