John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Parent and conjugated estrogens and progestagens in surface water of the Santa Ana River: Determination, occurrence and risk assessment

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This present study investigated the occurrence of 13 parent and conjugated estrogens and progestagens in surface water of the Santa Ana River. With the exception of the synthetic hormones 17 α‐ethynylestradiol and mestranol, other compounds were detected at least twice at 10 representative sites, with the ubiquitous estrone (E1) and 17β‐estradiol‐3‐sulfate as the dominant compounds quantified (0.24–6.37 ng/L and 0.49–9.25 ng/L, respectively). Sites near dairy farms exhibited high levels of conjugates while those close to a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent outlet displayed relatively high concentrations of E1. Principle component analysis coupled with multiple linear regression revealed dairy farms and the STP as the 2 significant contamination sources, accounting for 69.9 and 31.1% of the total hormone burden, respectively. Risk assessment results suggested E1 and 17β‐estradiol (E2) as the 2 hormones with largest risks to aquatic organisms, and which combined, contributed >90% of the total estrogenicity. Most of the sites investigated showed that E1 and E2 posed a medium risk (0.1 < risk quotient < 1), while each induced a high risk (risk quotient > 1) at sites severely impacted by the STP and dairy farms. These results suggest that river health would benefit from effective treatment of waste at the STP and dairy farms prior to discharge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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