Keywords: data envelopment analysis, Malmquist DEA, Olympic Games, sports rankings, performance measurement, benchmarks, Beijing Olympics, efficiency assessments, gold medals, silver medals, bronze medals, sporting prizes, Olympiads, China, sport, GDP, gross domestic product, population, variable returns, returns to scale, non-discretionary variables, output-oriented models, efficiency scores, sports participants, athletes, participating countries, performance indexes, inefficient nations, international events, society, systems science, assessment methods, social systems
Performance and benchmarks of participating nations in Beijing Olympics using the DEA approach
In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA), a well known and effective tool for relative efficiency assessment, is used for measuring the performance of 86 participating nations that won at least one medal in Beijing Olympics. This approach considers two inputs (GDP and population) and three outputs (number of gold, silver and bronze medals won), and variable returns to scale are assumed. As both of the two inputs are non-discretionary variables which can not be controlled by decision makers, we choose an output-oriented DEA model for assessing the efficiency scores of participating countries. Performance indexes as well as benchmarks are analysed for each country. For the efficient participants, a performance index related to the benchmark is attained for expressing a complete ranking, while for the inefficient nations, a benchmarking result is provided for each of them to improve performance.