Performance and rebound of intensive source depletion technologies were evaluated at 59 chlorinated solvent sites where remediation targeted dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. The four technologies included in the study are chemical oxidation, enhanced bioremediation, thermal treatment, and surfactant/cosolvent flushing. Performance was evaluated by examining temporal groundwater concentration data before and after source remediation was performed. Results indicated that all four technologies have median concentration reductions of 88% or greater for the parent chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC). Approximately 75% of the source depletion projects were able to achieve a 70% reduction in parent compound concentrations. A median reduction in total CVOC concentrations (parent plus daughter compounds) of 72% was observed at 12 chemical oxidation sites and 62% at 21 enhanced bioremediation sites. Rebound was assessed at sites having at least one year of post-treatment data. Rebound occurrence was most prevalent at sites implementing chemical oxidation. At chemical oxidation sites where rebound was evaluated (n=7), the median parent CVOC concentration reduction was 90% immediately following treatment compared to 78% at the end of post-treatment monitoring (i.e., one to five years after treatment). For enhanced bioremediation sites where rebound was evaluated (n=10), median parent CVOC concentration reduction changed from 77% to 96% over the post-treatment monitoring period. Minimal concentration change was observed over the post-treatment monitoring period at surfactant/cosolvent sites (n=2) and thermal treatment sites (n=l) evaluated for rebound. Based on current data, none of the 59 source depletion projects was able to meet Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) throughout the treatment zone for all CVOCs.
Performance of DNAPL source depletion technologies 2 at 59 Chlorinated solvent-impacted sites
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