John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuECHERS method: A case study from the Jimma zone

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Samples of maize, teff, red pepper and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d‐SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method showed satisfactory performance. Percent recovery of most pesticides was in the range of 70‐120% with good repeatability (% RSD < 20). The limit of detection and limit of quantification varied between 0.001 to 0.092µg/g and 0.002 to 0.307µg/g, respectively. DDT, Endosulfan, Cypermethrin and Permethrin were the major detected pesticides. All the pesticides analyzed were detected in red pepper and green coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p value <0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained one or more pesticides and two third of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits (MRLs), while one third were above. These results indicate that there is a need for a good pesticide monitoring program and to evaluate consumer risk assessment for people in Ethiopia. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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