Photocatalytic ozonation of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water with a new TiO2 fiber
More effective techniques are required to mineralize the increasing number of recalcitrant organic contaminants at low concentrations in the water environment using advanced oxidation process. Though relatively new, photocatalytic ozonation (O3/UV/TiO2) is considered superior to ozonation (O3) and photocatalysis (UV/TiO2), due to synergistic effects and use of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysts is a milestone in advance oxidation process. This article aimed to elucidate 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) mineralization characteristics in low aqueous solutions by O3/UV/TiO2 using the world’s first high-strength TiO2 fiber catalyst in laboratory experiments. 2, 4-D degradation and TOC removal in O3, UV/TiO2 and O3/UV/TiO2 followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetic. The removal rates for 2, 4-D and TOC in O3/UV/TiO2 were respectively about 1.5 and 2.4-fold larger than the summation of the corresponding values in O3 and UV/TiO2. The O3/UV/TiO2 process was characterized by short-lived few aromatic intermediates, faster degradations of aliphatic intermediates and dechlorination as a major step in 2, 4-D mineralization. The significantly enhanced 2, 4-D mineralization in the process was attributed to increased ozone decomposition and reduced electron-hole recombination on TiO2 surface resulting to a large number of .OH generation. The O3/UV/TiO2 process with the TiO2 fiber catalyst was very promising with respect to the major challenges being faced in AOP involving TiO2, namely separation of powder catalyst in suspension and reduced efficiency of immobilized catalysts (e.g. TiO2 film/fiber).