Physical and chemical properties of the Goryczkowe and Bystrej Górne vaucluse springs in the Tatra Mountains

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

This paper describes research on two of the largest karst springs in Poland's Tatra Mountains – Goryczkowe and Bystrej Górne – both located in the Tatra National Park. The aim of the study was to determine the potential contributing area for the Bystrej Gorne Spring. Research has shown that seasonal changes in the physical and chemical properties of water in both springs followed a similar pattern; however, observed differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, research has shown that the potential contributing area is different than that previously identified by other researchers. The chemical composition of water obtained from each spring was dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3, and included small amounts of the biogenic NO3 ion. The highest values of the measured physical and chemical parameters were noted in winter, while the lowest values were noted in spring and summer. Principal component analysis was used to assess the physical and chemical parameters of water obtained from both studied springs. Water dilution and catchment biological activity were identified as two key processes affecting physical and chemical properties of karst spring water. Several differences were identified between the springs – water temperature, pH, mineralization, as well as the concentration of Mg2+, HCO3, and SO24.

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