Keywords: heavy metals, metalloids, phytofiltration, arsenic, water pollution, transgenic plants, environmental pollution, water quality, hyperaccumulator, ferns
Phytofiltration of water polluted with arsenic and heavy metals
This article reviews recent advances in phytofiltration of arsenic and toxic heavy metals from contaminated water ecosystems. Arsenic and metal contamination in drinking and non-drinking water has created global environmental health concerns. Phytofiltration using aquatic and terrestrial plants has promising potential for the ex situ and in situ clean-up of these waters. An arsenic hyperaccumulator, a fern species of the Pteris genus in hydroponic systems, may be more efficient to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Phytofiltration using aquatic plants including Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor, Lemna gibba, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea spontanea, Nymphaea alba L., V. Spiralis, Nelumbo nucifera, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton lucens, Salvinia herzogoi, Myriophyllum brasillensis, Cabomba sp., Myriophylhum aquaticum, Ludwigina palustris and Mentha aquatic, Scapania undulata and floating macrophytes Pistia stratiotes have high potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions and industrial wastewaters depending on the selection of an appropriate plant species.