In the following sections the experimental details for the measurements conducted in the JRC facilities will be described.
CYCLES & STEADY STATE TESTS
The standard New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) emissions certification test for light duty vehicles was used (Figure 1). This cycle has been used in Europe for certification of light duty vehicles since 2000 and consists of the urban part (ECE) and the extra urban part (EUDC). In order to improve the readability of the figures at the results section of this paper the pattern of the cycle is not shown. In addition, three real-world driving cycles which were developed in the framework of the ARTEMIS project  were measured. These cycles were developed by statistical analysis of speed profile databases consisting of 90 000 km monitored on board 80 passenger cars in France, Germany, Great Britain and Greece, supplemented by another 10 000 km obtained in Switzerland and Italy under controlled traffic conditions. These cycles, named Common Artemis Driving Cycles (CADC) by convention, correspond to total of 40 minutes of urban, rural and motorway driving which describe a range of representative driving conditions encountered in Europe. Arrows in the Figure indicate the prescribed PM sampling times. However these times were not taken into account and PM samples were taken during the whole duration of the cycles, due to difficulties in the dilution tunnel control software. A number of limited steady state tests at 120 and 140 km/h were conducted in order to investigate the regeneration emissions of the vehicle.