Keywords: tourism, shadow destinations, regional development, geography, policy measures, welfare, place branding, Italy, Pisa, destination brands, regional innovation, destination development, tourist destinations
Policy measures for creating an integrated and brand–focused regional innovation system in tourism in a shadow destination: insights from Pisa's destination development strategy
Tourism has often been hyped as an engine of regional growth and development but often failed to deliver the expected results. This is especially the case in shadow destinations. The concept of a shadow destination refers to a region whose relative attractioness is significantly lower than co–located places. Based on regional innovation systems and place branding research the paper develops policy measures adapted to the specific challenges a shadow destination faces. Empirically, the appropriateness of the policy measures is demonstrated through applying it to a paradigmatic shadow destination, being Pisa, Italy. Pisa is a shadow destination of Florence.