Nigeria is usually under the influence of significant natural aerosol loading. The country is the most populous in Africa with an estimated number of over 130,000,000 people and records one of the highest population growth rates in the world. It is the sixth largest oil-producing country in the world and a regional power in West Africa with great potentials for rapid industrialisation and associated urbanisation. There are strongly changing patterns of agricultural production and land use occasioned by rising population. Given this scenario, major increases in the emission of a range of aerosol species and particulate matter are expected over the next few decades at a rate that will be unprecedented.