Keywords: geological isolation, combined sites, Russia, geologic-geophysical investigations, rock massif, prospective sites, radioactive waste disposal, deep boreholes, underground laboratory, multibarrier isolation systems, underground isolation safety, nuclear waste, nuclear energy, nuclear power, nuclear science, nuclear technology, radiation safety, nuclear safety
Prospects for development of technologies of radwaste geological isolation in Russia
Based on the analysis of volumes, inventory and activity of all RW accumulated in Russia, the comparative estimation on methods of their safe final isolation has been conducted. More than 90% of all RW is low level activity wastes. For such waste, the most effective method of disposal is near the surface or in a superficial (shallow) underground facility created recently or one that is already available. Ecologically hazardous waste containing long lived radioactive nuclides, which make up 99% of RW activity, should be placed in slightly permeable deep geological formations. According to the adopted and implemented Russian approach of approximation of places of radwaste burial to places of their generation, geological investigations for substantiation of such places were carried out within 10–15 years on the territories of Krasnoyarsk region (Nizhnekansky rock massif, the MCC area) and Chelyabinsk region (town of Ozersk, PA 'Mayak'). Based on the analysis of places of generation of radwaste, the basic part of which contains long lived radioactive nuclides, and the geological environment for their final isolation, the following were determined: for disposal of previously accumulated and recently generated RW from fuel processing at PA 'Mayak' in the places of completion of the closed fuel cycle, the rock massif within the limits of combine production area can be used; and a possible place for completion of the open and closed fuel cycle is the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif.