On the 14 August 2003, a complex combination of immediate events and longer term vulnerabilities led to a domino effect in which 50 million people had their power supplies interrupted. Consequent losses were between $5–$10 billion. It is, therefore, one of the most serious disruptions to a national power distribution network. The causes included technical issues to do with network capacity and the algorithms used to predict potential distribution problems. It also had managerial and human factors causes; these arguably included an over-reliance on automated monitoring systems. The infrastructure failure also stemmed from governmental and regulatory intervention in the operation of the energy markets. The following paper applies accident investigation techniques to represent and reason about the complex interactions between these causes. In particular, we use Violation and Vulnerability (V2) diagrams to map out arguments for and against market deregulation as a causal factor in engineering failures.
- Inderscience Publishers
- Public policy and the failure of national infrastructures
Cultural preferences for the methods and motivation of sanitation infrastructure development
Research has found that sanitation infrastructure is cultured, or is shaped by national level cultural preferences. This study expands on this past work to identify causal pathways showing combinations of cultural dimensions that explain sanitation infrastructure technology choice, including total access to improved sanitation facilities, sewerage connections and access to onsite treatment technologies. This analysis uses fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to analyze all possible combinations of causal...
Utilising the Strengths of Different Sound Sensor Networks in Smart City Noise Management
City noise management involves a variety of disciplines such as planning, mapping, action plans, policing, complaint management, abatement and public awareness. With the wide availability of mobile broadband internet access coupled with low cost noise sensors, many authorities and researchers are eager to use sound sensor networks for these tasks. A sensor network can be defined as a group of specialized transducers and processing with a communications infrastructure and is intended to monitor and record conditions...
Optical encoders and LiDAR scanning
Overview Modern technology is taken for granted; a driver only needs to type a destination into a SATNAV system and step-by-step instructions, journey distance and duration, driving conditions and hazards, as well as alternative routes, instantly appear. In order to work, highly accurate and up-to-date maps are required of an entire country`s road network. This non-trivial task becomes significantly more complex for the world`s largest countries. China, as the world`s most populous country and...
Exploring nature-based solutions - The role of green infrastructure in mitigating the impacts of ...
Natural resource scarcity, climate change impacts, continued employment crises, public budget debts and economic recovery plans are some of the challenges that governments in Europe currently face. Moreover, Member States in the European Union (EU) need to continue building or rebuilding roads, sewage systems, levees, etc. (also known as grey infrastructure). Despite being essential for economic growth, these infrastructure investments are significant and put heavy burdens on governments. But as governments...
Can nature help reduce the impacts of climate change?
Building and managing a well-planned network of natural areas might provide an effective and, in many cases, cheaper solution for coping with natural disasters such as floods or landslides. A new report published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA) explores how ‘green infrastructure’ can help Europe prepare for and reduce the loss from weather- and climate-related hazards. Weather- and climate-related hazards, including extreme precipitation, floods, wet mass movement (e.g. avalanches and...