The search for a nonchemical way to reduce scale formation has been the Holy Grail of those seeking a green solution to this problem. Chemical water treatment can be successful at controlling scale; however, the problems associated with adding chemicals with various degrees of toxicity are factual. Chemicals in the concentrated form are often acute toxins, and their chronic toxicity in the diluted form is often uncertain. Chemicals must be added at the right time and rate or they are not as effective. Also, if improperly added to a system, they may cause severe operational problems.
Nonchemical water treatment equipment has had a checkered history with many providers of the equipment who were much more concerned with sales than science. Because of the lack of technical rigor in many nonchemical studies, NACE has developed a Technical Committee Report (7K189) ref. 1 for testing these devices. That report was used as a guideline for this paper.