Pump-and-Treat Ground-Water Remediation - A Guide for Decision Makers and Practitioners
Pump-and-treat is one of the most widely used ground-water remediation technologies. Conventional pump-and-treat methods involve pumping contaminated water to the surface for treatment. This guide, however, uses the term pump and treat in a broad sense to include any system where withdrawal from or injection into ground water is part of a remediation strategy. Variations and enhancements of conventional pump and treat include hydraulic fracturing as well as chemical and biological enhancements. The pump-and-treat remediation approach is used at about threequarters of the Superfund sites where ground water is contaminated and at most sites where cleanup is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state laws [National Research Council (NRC), 1994]. Although the effectiveness of pump-and-treat systems has been called into question (Sidebar 1), after two decades of use, this approach remains a necessary component of most ground-water remediation efforts and is appropriate for both restoration and plume containment.