IWA Publishing

Quantifying micro-organism removal for safe drinking water supplies

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

Over the past ten years the management of microbiological drinking water quality in The Netherlands has shifted from curative administration toward a more preventative strategy. This shift in policy came as a result of the findings of reports from other developed countries which highlighted the risk from persistent pathogens such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, some enteroviruses; and the pathogenic bacteria Campylobacter and E. coli O157 for drinking water safety. The high virulence of these pathogens found in dose-response studies and the failure of faecal indicators has led to concern for the microbial safety of drinking water.

The 2001 Dutch Drinking Water Decree dictates that a quantative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) consisting of source water monitoring for emerging waterborne pathogens; assessment of local elimination capacity; and calculation of annual infection pathogen infection risk is needed for all drinking water to ensure that the risk of infection does not exceed 10-4 per person, per year.

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