After a short review of radioactive waste origins and inventories in Italy, the paper deals with the current major challenges that Italy has to cope with to pursue its radioactive waste sustainable management and safe disposal. Site restoration by Sogin of dismissed nuclear installations is part of the waste management challenge. The importance of assuring the highest levels of safety culture among the employees and an overall manpower, adequate both in number and qualification according to the best international good practices, is underlined and included in the largest effort of the knowledge management project. Sogin is coping with the above challenges also with the Italian School on Radioprotection, Safety and Environment, a unique centre of know-how and know-why transfer in Italy.
Keywords: Sogin, Nucleco, nuclear decommissioning, radioactive waste, waste management and disposal