The Xinanjiang model has been successfully and widely applied in humid and semi-humid regions of China for rainfall–runoff simulation and flood forecasting. However, its forecasting precision is seriously affected by antecedent precipitation (Pa). Commonly applied methods relying on the experience of individual modelers are not standardized and difficult to transfer. In particular, the Xinanjiang daily model may result in obvious errors in the determination of Pa. Thus, a practical method for estimating Pa is proposed in this paper, which is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) and is estimated during a rising flood period. In the optimization process of a GA, Pa values form a chromosome, the root-mean-squared error between the observed and simulated streamflow is chosen as the fitness function. Simultaneously, the best individual reserved strategy is adopted between correction periods to avoid complete independence between each optimization process as well as to ensure the stability of the algorithm. Twenty-seven historical floods observed at the gauge station of the Shuangpai reservoir in Hunan Province of China are used to test the presented algorithm for estimation of Pa, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves the quality of flood forecasting in the Xinanjiang model.
Relief for Allergy Sufferers: AQM Stations from Plair Visualize Pollen
The prevalence of pollen allergy is vast, attaining 25-30% of the population worldwide, and this number continues to grow. Symptoms include rhino-conjunctivitis, asthma and eczema. Plair’s Rapid-E system powered with artificial intelligence provides real-time pollen measurements together with other particle present in the air to better alert allergic population and improve quality of life. Rapid-E station integrates the Lufft all-in-one weather sensor to measure local weather parameters, which also allows...
Weather Information Service Engine Project (WISE)
Weather Information Service Engine Project (WISE) is dedicated to resolve urban environmental issues including high-resolution weather forecasting, urban flooding prediction, road meteorology and urban carbon dynamics, and new urban service systems to minimize and mitigate the impacts of natural disasters and climate change on urban dwellers. WISE is targeting South Korea’s capitol, the megacity Seoul, and surrounding urban areas. Recently they started a project called the City Energy Monitoring System,...
Case study - Buoy-based temperature profiling in the Bavarian Lakes
In summertime a temperature stratification occurs in deep lakes – the surface water is warm, but deep down the water is cold. This has considerable influence on the nutrient balance and the biological habitat in these lakes. Due to generally higher air temperatures induced by the climate change, both change and have effects on the life conditions of the ecosystems in the lakes.Researchers use OTT buoys and the OTT net DL datalogger to study the long term effects of climate change on the Bavaraian lakes. Ba...
Case study - Precipitation measurement in East Tyrolia high mountains
The Defereggen Valley`s remote location is in the middle of the East Tyrolean high mountain valleys in the Alps. Due to the remote location, extreme weather conditions, and lack of infrastructure, it had not been possible to install an official precipitation measurement station in the Defereggen Valley, yet. It was a "white spot" on the map, from a meteorological point of view.Today, precipitation data, air temperature, humidity and snow height are monitored and radio transmitted to the Tyrolean regional government...
Safe Landings Whatever the Weather: Lufft Sensors on Airports
Pilots, air traffic controllers and airport operators do their best to make air travel safer and more efficient. Sometimes, however, flight security depends on external factors we can hardly influence. This especially refers to risky weather conditions: Strong winds, icy cold or strong precipitation can have serious consequences. On average, 23% of all aircraft accidents and 68% of canceled flights in 2015 are attributable to adverse weather conditions (source: FAA). How dangerous weather conditions are, is...