Keywords: real-word emissions, type approval, emission factors, emission inventory, cold start, vehicle emissions, pollution emissions, passenger cars
Real-world and type-approval emission evolution of passenger cars
The investigation of several passenger car generations with gasoline engines shows that the emissions depend very strongly on the driving cycle. Official type approval cycles allow just very inaccurate predications about their real-world emissions. The measured gasoline vehicles have up to factor 11 higher real-life emissions than in type approval cycles. However, a clear reduction of real-world emissions can be seen over the different investigated generations of gasoline cars. In addition, it can be seen that the cold start emissions depend strongly on ambient temperature levels for all generations of cars and that the cold start accounts for an increasing part of the total pollutant emissions. As an extreme example, the cold start hydrocarbon emissions of Euro-3 cars at –20°C ambient temperature correspond approximately to those of 1,000 km driving with warm engines.