Keywords: blast furnace slag, blast furnace sludge, steel furnace slag, steel furnace sludge, red mud, stone aggregate substitute, cement manufacture, adsorbents, catalysts, recycling, iron, alumina, environmental pollution, waste management, waste disposal, waste reuse, bulk usage
Recycling and use of wastes/co-products from the iron/steel and alumina industries
The current and potential uses for Blast Furnace (BF) slag, steel slag and red mud, and their environmental implications, are outlined and discussed as are the difficulties associated with red mud disposal and subsequent rehabilitation of the disposal sites. Whilst practicable bulk uses for the large amounts of slags that are produced have been found, the uses for red mud are limited and only utilise an extremely small proportion of the waste. Strategies to reduce the cost of red mud disposal are addressed and it is concluded that, as is already the case for slags, bulk uses for red mud need to be developed.