Keywords: emergency planning zones, nuclear power plants, emergency response, probabilistic consequence assessment, reference release scenario, risk-based spatial planning, nuclear energy, risk management, emergency management, The Netherlands, risk assessment
Reference scenarios and emergency zoning for nuclear facilities in The Netherlands
This paper discusses the approach used to establish the emergency zones around nuclear facilities in The Netherlands. The policy of using risk analyses in spatial planning, such as the introduction of risk zones around industrial sites, was officially established in 1988. However, there is a long history of risk-based spatial planning in The Netherlands, such as calculation of flooding risks related to physical planning in large polders and near river embankments. Presently, risk zones are established around large chemical industries, fuel storage facilities and also nuclear facilities, as part of the policy for external safety. For large nuclear facilities, emergency zones were established on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the consequences of a reference release scenario (enveloping source term). In the Netherlands reference (release) scenarios are also used during the early phase of the emergency response.