A range of technologies is available for remediation of metals-contaminated soil and groundwater at Superfund sites. General approaches to remediation of metal contamination include isolation, immobilization, toxicity reduction, physical separation and extraction.
These general approaches can be used for many types of contaminants but the specific technology selected for treatment of a metals-contaminated site will depend on the form of the contamination and other site-specific characteristics. One or more of these approaches are often combined for more cost-effective treatment. A number of the available technologies have been demonstrated in full-scale applications and are presently commercially available.