Keywords: living sludge, non–living sludge, heavy metal removal, bioadsorption, bioaccumulation, equilibrium modelling, heavy metals, aqueous solutions, water pollution, environmental pollution
Removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by living and non–living cultured sludges: equilibrium modelling
In this study, the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions using living and non–living cultured sludges of different sludge ages was investigated. For non–living sludge, only the metabolism–independent bio–adsorption process occurred and Langmuir model was adequate to describe the adsorption isotherm. When living sludge was used as the adsorbent, a proposed model incorporating the bio–adsorption and bioaccumulation processes in sequence was found to fit better than the Langmuir model and provided a better interpretation of the metal uptake by living sludge. The bioaccumulation process was observed to be the predominant process in removing Cu(II) from the aqueous solutions.