Surface-modified magnetic nano alloy particles Ni2.33Fe were prepared using a hydrothermal method and they were utilized for removing Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous solution. The magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which confirmed that the surface of the magnetic product with a face-centered cubic-type structure was successfully modified by sodium citrate. Kinetics studies were conducted. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was used for fitting the kinetic data successfully. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were employed for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium. It was found that the adsorption isotherm can be very satisfactorily fitted by the Freundlich model.