John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Reproductive Toxicity of Binary and Ternary Mixture Combinations of Ni, Zn, and Pb To Ceriodaphnia Dubia Is Best Predicted With The Independent Action Model

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Metals occur as mixtures in the environment. Risk assessment procedures for metals currently lack a framework to incorporate chronic metal mixture toxicity. Here, the toxicity of binary and ternary mixture combinations of Ni, Zn, and Pb was investigated in three large‐scale experiments using the standard chronic (7d) C. dubia reproductive toxicity test. These metals were selected because of anticipated differences in mode of action. The toxicity of the metals in most mixtures, either expressed as free metal ion activities or as dissolved metal concentrations, were antagonistic relative to the concentration addition (CA) model, whereas no significant (p < 0.05) interactive effects were observed relative to the independent action (IA) model. The only exception was the binary Pb‐Zn mixture, for which mixture effects were non‐interactive based on the dissolved concentrations, but antagonistic based on free ion activities all relative to the IA model. Overall, the IA model fitted the observed toxicity better than the CA model, which is consistent with the different modes of action of these metals. The CA model mostly overestimated toxicity. Finally, the present study warns against extrapolation of the type of interactive effects between species, even when they are closely related. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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