Keywords: sustainable Asia, resource circulating society, product systems, service systems, PSS, greening industry, sustainable urban metabolism, urban-rural networking, regional approach, sustainability science, sustainable society, resource productivity
Resources circulating and sustainable society in Asia: concept and research scheme
Recent rapid economic growth in Asian emerging nations is bringing higher living standards to many people. However, this economic growth is usually accompanied by severe environmental degradation. Japan has improved its resource productivity through, among other initiatives, reduce, reuse and recycle (3R) programmes, eco-town promotion and green product and service design systems. In order to pursue the path toward a sustainable society, governments have to change or update their policies and engineering practices and enhance cooperative and comprehensive initiatives on a regional scale. This paper addresses both the national and regional initiatives to promote the transition toward a sustainable Asia.