John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation

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The increase of ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface due to the increase of ozone layer depletion have affected crop production systems, and in combination with pesticides used in agricultural activities can lead to greater risks to the environment. The impact of ultraviolet radiation and carbaryl singly and in combination on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Brassica rapa (turnip) was studied. The combined exposure was analyzed using the MixTox tool and was based on the conceptual model of Independent Action (IA), where possible deviations to synergism or antagonism, dose‐ratio or dose‐level response pattern were also considered. Compared to the control, carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation) individually led to reductions in growth, fresh and dry weight and water content for both species. Combined treatment of ultraviolet and carbaryl were more deleterious when compared to single exposure. For T. aestivum length no interactions between the 2 stressors was found (Independent Action) and a dose‐level deviation was the best description for the weight parameters. For B. rapa dose‐ratio deviations from the conceptual model were found when length and dry weight were analyzed and an effect on the fresh weight higher than expected (synergism) occurred with combined exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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