Reverse osmosis water chemistry
Alkalinity: Alkalinity is comprised primarily of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxides. Naturally occurring alkalinity is the earth’s natural buffering system in that small doses of strong acids (e.g. acid rain) react with alkalinity and result in relatively small changes in pH. Carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are in a balance between the pH range of 4.4 and 8.2. At a pH of 4.4 or lower, all alkalinity is in the form of carbon dioxide. At a pH of 8.2, there is no carbon dioxide and all alkalinity is bicarbonate. Bicarbonate and carbonate are in a balance between the pH range of 8.2 and 9.6. At a pH of 9.6, there is no carbon dioxide or bicarbonate and all alkalinity is carbonate. As the pH increases above 9.6, hydroxyl alkalinity due to the presence of the hydroxide ion starts to occur. Most naturally occurring water sources have a pH between 6 and 8.4, so the presence of hydroxides is the result of man-made activity. Alkalinity, especially by boiler water chemists, can be reported as M-Alkalinity and P-Alkalinity. M-Alkalinity measures the Total Alkalinity in a water in terms of “ppm as calcium carbonate” based on an acid titration to a pH of 4.2 using a Methyl orange indicator endpoint. P-Alkalinity measures the amount of bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxyl alkalinity based on an acid titration to a pH of 8.2 using a Phenolphthalein pink indicator endpoint.