The pulp and paper sector has been a significant source of water pollution in China for many years. The Chinese government has made great efforts on water pollution control for the pulp and paper sector. While actively participating in various international treaties and conventions related to environmental management and pollution control in this sector, China has created a comprehensive environmental management framework, including several environmental policies, regulations and standards. This study reviews the current environmental framework for the management and control of water pollutants generated by the pulp and paper industry in China, with reference to relevant experiences. Apart from assessing the achievements that China has made, this study proposes some recommendations to further enhance water pollution control capacity and facilitate effective legal enforcement. Approaches such as improvements to environmental standards and permit systems, technical upgrading, cleaner production strategy, environmental monitoring improvements, integration of financing channels for environmental improvement, and enhancement of social responsibilities of enterprises are addressed.