Keywords: crowd dynamics, crowd safety, evacuation analysis, pedestrian simulation, risk assessment, behavioural-based safety, emergency evacuations, emergency management, disaster management, critical infrastructures, evacuation simulation, modelling
Review of pedestrian and evacuation simulations
Simulating emergency evacuations has grown in popularity since the tragic events of 9/11. Unfortunately there are a large number of modelling, simulation, animation and computer graphics systems available today many of which are misleading. Models and simulations fall into two main categories: Microscopic and Macroscopic. We highlight the general differences in these approaches, outlining the strengths and weaknesses in both approaches. We examine the fundamental principles of pedestrian and evacuation simulations in this paper and guide the reader towards a greater understanding of crowd dynamics and evacuation analysis. A background to modelling and simulations, their purpose and objectives followed by a risk assessment analysis description is presented. We highlight the different type of evacuation scenario that need consideration when choosing a modelling/simulation tool and conclude with a checklist for choosing an evacuation analysis system.