John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and under natural sunlight, produces reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. This paper summarizes the literature and derives a “phototoxicity ratio” (PR) between the results of nano‐TiO2 experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, PR can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano‐TiO2 which were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections may also be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the PRs of two distinct groups: (a) aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera and (b) all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano‐TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano‐TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non‐Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7 respectively) after illumination. Both median values and 75% quartile of PR are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano‐TiO2 toxicity tests which were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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