We present a systematic review of investigations of some large incidents in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The purpose of the review is to identify factors that affect the risk level during emergency response. We found that the most important factor that increases the risk level for rescue personnel and civilians is lacking acknowledgement of risks due to lack of knowledge, causing inadequate counter measures. The most critical mistakes are made during the early stages of the response operation, before the external expertise arrives on the scene.
Keywords: emergency response, risk, decision-making, incident investigations, literature review, counterfactual reasoning