Role of membranes and activated carbon in the removal of endocrine disruptors
As part of an American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) research project to evaluate conventional and advanced treatment processes for the removal of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals (Project #2758), several experiments were conducted using membranes and activated carbon. A series of dynamic flow-through membrane experiments were performed at pilot- and full-scale to determine the removal of micropollutants. Various membrane configurations were investigated including: reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), electrodialysis reversal (EDR), and membrane bioreactors. Activated carbon tests were performed at bench-scale using both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC). Several full-scale plants were also evaluated as a comparison to predictions from pilot-scale. In general, observations at pilot-scale agreed well with full-scale measurements.