Keywords: geological disposal, waste disposal facilities, radioactive waste, carbon dioxide, CO2, carbon capture and storage, CCS, carbon storage, safety assessment, risk assessment, cross–national comparison, nuclear waste, geological storage, storage safety, disposal safety, Czech Republic, Switzerland, India, Bulgaria, performance evaluation, safety indicators, deep geological facilities
Safety/risk assessment methodologies of deep geological facilities: results from a cross–national comparison
Any geological disposal/storage facility must prove its safe performance prior to licensing, regardless of whether the compound is solid radioactive waste (RW) or gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2). The disposal/storage facility is considered safe if it meets the relevant safety standards and proves its reliable safe performance over defined timescales. This paper presents a cross–national comparison of the safety/risk assessment aspects of ultimate disposal facilities for RW and CO2 in the Czech Republic, Switzerland, India, and Bulgaria, completed in an international project. In both fields, the main goal of safety assessments is to create a reliable evaluation of the disposal system performance over long timescales. The procedures are based on the following scheme: system description - system development description - model development - consequence analyses. Due to the long temporal and large spatial effects of the substances disposed of, a call for the introduction of a broader range of safety indicators has emerged in both fields. The main emphasis of this study is on reliable models and data.