John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Salinity influences on the uptake of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate by marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

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With increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), concerns on their potential deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems have increased. Most previous studies have focused on toxicity of AgNPs while their bioavailability has been seldom investigated. The present study examined the effects of salinity on the aggregation kinetics as well as the bioavailability of commercial 80 nm citrate coated AgNPs (c‐AgNPs) in the presence or absence of a non‐ionic surfactant Tween 20 to marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). Additionally, the uptake of soluble Ag was quantified for comparison and for deducting the uptake of soluble Ag during AgNPs exposure by applying a biokinetic model. We found that the addition of Tween 20 immediately slowed down the process of aggregation of AgNPs and elevated amount of Tween 20 (20 µM) kept AgNPs well dispersed, even in the 30 psu salinity medium. Uptake rate constants (ku) of AgNPs were less than half of the soluble Ag at low salinities (1 and 5 psu), while limited bioavailability of c‐AgNPs was observed at high salinities (15 and 30 psu). However, the Tween 20 stabilized AgNPs (t‐AgNPs) were accumulated by medaka at comparable rate as the soluble Ag, indicating the importance of dispersion for bioavailability of AgNPs in a highly ionic environment. The present study provided the first insight of the bioavailability of AgNPs to fish in high ionic environment. More studies are needed to have a full understanding of bioavailability of AgNPs in marine environments. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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