John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Semifield testing of a bioremediation tool for atrazine‐contaminated soils: Evaluating the efficacy on soil and aquatic compartments

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The present study evaluated the bioremediation efficacy of a cleanup tool for atrazine‐contaminated soils (Pseudomonas sp. ADP plus citrate [P. ADP + CIT]) at a semifield scale, combining chemical and ecotoxicological information. Three experiments representing worst‐case scenarios of atrazine contamination for soil, surface water (due to runoff), and groundwater (due to leaching) were performed in laboratory simulators (100 × 40 × 20 cm). For each experiment, three treatments were set up: bioremediated, nonbioremediated, and a control. In the first, the soil was sprayed with 10 times the recommended dose (RD) for corn of Atrazerba and with P. ADP + CIT at d 0 and a similar amount of P. ADP at d 2. The nonbioremediated treatment consisted of soil spraying with 10 times the RD of Atrazerba (d 0). After 7 d of treatment, samples of soil (and eluates), runoff, and leachate were collected for ecotoxicological tests with plants (Avena sativa and Brassica napus) and microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) species. In the nonbioremediated soils, atrazine was very toxic to both plants, with more pronounced effects on plant growth than on seed emergence. The bioremediation tool annulled atrazine toxicity to A. sativa (86 and 100% efficacy, respectively, for seed emergence and plant growth). For B. napus, results point to incomplete bioremediation. For the microalgae, eluate and runoff samples from the nonbioremediated soils were extremely toxic; a slight toxicity was registered for leachates. After only 7 d, the ecotoxicological risk for the aquatic compartments seemed to be diminished with the application of P. ADP + CIT. In aqueous samples obtained from the bioremediated soils, the microalgal growth was similar to the control for runoff samples and slightly lower than control (by 11%) for eluates. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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