Norway signed the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement that obliges the country to reduce greenhouse emissions. As part of its commitment, the government plans to gradually reduce national emissions by 30% ln 2020 and achieve carbon-neutrallty before 2050. Fossil fuels used lbr transportation account for 20ok of the country's increase rn emissions.
In the capital city of Os1o, greenhouse gas emissions per inhabitant are low compared with other Nordic capitals due to the use of hydroelectric power and the absence of emissions- intensive industries. If emissions were linked to the production of all goods and services consumed ln Oslo, then the total amount of emissions would be live times greater. However, vehicle transport accounts for B5o/o of pollution and greenhouse emrssions and costs an estimated 0.9 billion euros to the environment and health sectors. Once bus transport in Oslo achleves its goal of 100o/o cllmate-neutrality, then climate gases from public transpofi would be reduced considerably
Oslo's environmental policy is ambitious. Quite simply, the city government is striving to be one of the world's most environmentally sustainable capitals o[ the wor1d. In 2005 the City Council adopted a climate and energy action plan initiated by the local government that will reduce gas emisslons 50% by 2030. The plan ca1ls for increased use of public transport to reduce arr pollution and traffic congestion in order to stop further growth in transport growth. It also requires that the ffansport system will use fuel-efflcient vehicles that use renewable sources of energy, such as bio- methane. By 2011, the city will have three plants that produce biomethane as fuel for pub1lc transport: this includes two plants Ibr separating wet-organic waste and a biogas upgradlng plant ln the Bekkelaget sewage treatment plant, which treats 40olo of Oslos sewage. Pubhc procurement policy will favor environmentally friendly vehicles; for example tenders of public transport services will requlre low greenhouse emissions. The citys goal is for 50% of its road traffic to consist of vehicles wth no or very low consumption of fossil fuels by 2014.