Keywords: land application, land reclamation, sludge characteristics, sewage sludge management, Malaysia, septic tanks, sewage treatment, sludge disposal, sewerage services
Sewage sludge management in Malaysia
This paper describes the current status of sewage sludge management in Malaysia, including sludge characteristics from both communal sewage treatment facilities and septic tanks. The levels of potentially toxic elements in the sludge are defined and compared to levels elsewhere in the context of the suitability of the sludge for agricultural use. Current sludge disposal practices are reviewed and the problems associated with them evaluated, including institutional issues such as enforcement of legislation, charges and cost recovery, and cultural problems with recycling. A range of options for sludge disposal is evaluated in the context of the local situation in Malaysia, taking into consideration the significant increase in the quantity of sludge that will result from the ongoing progression from lagoon to mechanised sewage treatment systems.