The information on mastication and food sensory properties is usually collected by recording people's ingesting and chewing actions using electromyography, fluorography, cinephotography, videofluorography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and so on. The process of human food mastication and swallowing is investigated by Discrete (or Distinct) Element Method (DEM) in this work. The fundamental concepts and algorithms of DEM are presented in this paper. Two initial models of human chewing and swallowing are constructed and relevant simulations are executed by PFC2D software. The first biting of rectangle food, round food, round food with a hole and the food swallowing are simulated. Changes in food reduction and jaw motion with respect to food mechanical properties and oral cavity state are observed during simulations. The movement and interaction of food particles, contact forces between the particles and teeth are analysed. Results from simulations can help understand masticatory performance and promote food product development.
- Inderscience Publishers
- Simulation of food mastication based on discrete element method
Old container, new station: WS600 part of air quality measurement system in Kutaisi
An AQM station including a Lufft WS600 all-in-one weather sensor was installed by our local system integrator ELKO LLC in Kutaisi, Georgia in May 2017. It was mounted on an existing measurement container provided by the customer LEPL National Environmental Agency. The system consists of a Fidas® 200 fine dust monitor and immission measurement system detecting PM2.5 and PM10 particles from Palay, Teledyne analysers and a Lufft WS600 on top. The components were delivered by company Envicontrol from Netherlands....
Prediction of groundwater levels using evidence of chaos and support vector machine
Many nonlinear models have been proposed to forecast groundwater level. However, the evidence of chaos in groundwater levels in landslide has not been explored. In addition, linear correlation analyses are used to determine the input and output variables for the nonlinear models. Linear correlation analyses are unable to capture the nonlinear relationships between the input and output variables. This paper proposes to use chaos theory to select the input and output variables for nonlinear models. The nonlinear...
A new reactor for denitrification and micro-particle removal in recirculated aquaculture systems
A ‘membrane-denitrification’ reactor (MDR) was developed and tested in a semi-technical recirculation aquaculture system in comparison to a double – without MDR – as reference system. The MDR consisted of a reactor with an ultrafiltration membrane unit for removal of micro-particles (e.g. sludge flocs, bacteria and parasites). Specific carrier material provided surfaces for biofilm growth in a fluidized bed reactor with ethanol as carbon source for denitrification. The continuous motion of these carriers cleaned...
Preliminary stabilisation of stormwater biofilters and loss of filter material
Stabilisation affects performance of stormwater biofilters operating under intermittent wetting and drying, mainly due to wash-off of filter material. Understanding the dynamics of solids wash-off is crucial in designing stormwater biofilters. The current study analysed the dynamics of solids wash-off in stormwater biofilters and quantified the loss of solids from the filter. Four Perspex™ bioretention columns (94 mm internal diameter) were fabricated with a filter layer that contained 8% organic material and...
Gas analysers support management of Swindon fire
The capability to convene a multi-agency Air Quality Cell (AQC) was established in England in 2009 following the Buncefield Oil Storage Depot incident. A review of this event identified the need to rapidly co-ordinate the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of air quality data in major incidents. Arrangements have been made in England to bring together experts from the Environment Agency (EA), Public Health England (PHE) and the Met Office on a 24/7, 365 days and year basis to form an AQC for any major...