The information on mastication and food sensory properties is usually collected by recording people's ingesting and chewing actions using electromyography, fluorography, cinephotography, videofluorography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and so on. The process of human food mastication and swallowing is investigated by Discrete (or Distinct) Element Method (DEM) in this work. The fundamental concepts and algorithms of DEM are presented in this paper. Two initial models of human chewing and swallowing are constructed and relevant simulations are executed by PFC2D software. The first biting of rectangle food, round food, round food with a hole and the food swallowing are simulated. Changes in food reduction and jaw motion with respect to food mechanical properties and oral cavity state are observed during simulations. The movement and interaction of food particles, contact forces between the particles and teeth are analysed. Results from simulations can help understand masticatory performance and promote food product development.
- Inderscience Publishers
- Simulation of food mastication based on discrete element method
A new reactor for denitrification and micro-particle removal in recirculated aquaculture systems
A ‘membrane-denitrification’ reactor (MDR) was developed and tested in a semi-technical recirculation aquaculture system in comparison to a double – without MDR – as reference system. The MDR consisted of a reactor with an ultrafiltration membrane unit for removal of micro-particles (e.g. sludge flocs, bacteria and parasites). Specific carrier material provided surfaces for biofilm growth in a fluidized bed reactor with ethanol as carbon source for denitrification. The continuous motion of these carriers cleaned...
Preliminary stabilisation of stormwater biofilters and loss of filter material
Stabilisation affects performance of stormwater biofilters operating under intermittent wetting and drying, mainly due to wash-off of filter material. Understanding the dynamics of solids wash-off is crucial in designing stormwater biofilters. The current study analysed the dynamics of solids wash-off in stormwater biofilters and quantified the loss of solids from the filter. Four Perspex™ bioretention columns (94 mm internal diameter) were fabricated with a filter layer that contained 8% organic material and...
Gas analysers support management of Swindon fire
The capability to convene a multi-agency Air Quality Cell (AQC) was established in England in 2009 following the Buncefield Oil Storage Depot incident. A review of this event identified the need to rapidly co-ordinate the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of air quality data in major incidents. Arrangements have been made in England to bring together experts from the Environment Agency (EA), Public Health England (PHE) and the Met Office on a 24/7, 365 days and year basis to form an AQC for any major...
Analysing coloured smoke | Pearl or Quest?
Coloured smoke consists of an aerosol of tiny particles which is combusted or vaporized. The particular pigment or dye of each colour affects the colour of the smoke. The mixture usually includes a cool-burning formula based on potassium chlorate oxidiser, dextrin or lactose as fuel. Then one or more dyes are introduced to account for around half of the mixture. A small amount of sodium bicarbonate may also be added as a coolant. Smoke bombs The mixture in the smoke grenades you might see at a paintball match...
The transfer of benzo[a]pyrene from microplastics to Artemia nauplii and further to zebrafish via a ...
The uptake of microplastic particles and the transfer of potential harmful substances along with microplastics has been studied in a variety of organisms, especially invertebrates. However, the potential accumulation of very small microplastic particles along food webs ending with vertebrate models has not been investigated so far. Therefore, a simple artificial food chain with Artemia spec. nauplii and zebrafish (Danio rerio) was established to analyze the transfer of microplastic particles and associated...