The information on mastication and food sensory properties is usually collected by recording people's ingesting and chewing actions using electromyography, fluorography, cinephotography, videofluorography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and so on. The process of human food mastication and swallowing is investigated by Discrete (or Distinct) Element Method (DEM) in this work. The fundamental concepts and algorithms of DEM are presented in this paper. Two initial models of human chewing and swallowing are constructed and relevant simulations are executed by PFC2D software. The first biting of rectangle food, round food, round food with a hole and the food swallowing are simulated. Changes in food reduction and jaw motion with respect to food mechanical properties and oral cavity state are observed during simulations. The movement and interaction of food particles, contact forces between the particles and teeth are analysed. Results from simulations can help understand masticatory performance and promote food product development.
- Inderscience Publishers
- Simulation of food mastication based on discrete element method
A new reactor for denitrification and micro-particle removal in recirculated aquaculture systems
A ‘membrane-denitrification’ reactor (MDR) was developed and tested in a semi-technical recirculation aquaculture system in comparison to a double – without MDR – as reference system. The MDR consisted of a reactor with an ultrafiltration membrane unit for removal of micro-particles (e.g. sludge flocs, bacteria and parasites). Specific carrier material provided surfaces for biofilm growth in a fluidized bed reactor with ethanol as carbon source for denitrification. The continuous motion of these carriers cleaned...
Preliminary stabilisation of stormwater biofilters and loss of filter material
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Gas analysers support management of Swindon fire
The capability to convene a multi-agency Air Quality Cell (AQC) was established in England in 2009 following the Buncefield Oil Storage Depot incident. A review of this event identified the need to rapidly co-ordinate the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of air quality data in major incidents. Arrangements have been made in England to bring together experts from the Environment Agency (EA), Public Health England (PHE) and the Met Office on a 24/7, 365 days and year basis to form an AQC for any major...
Analysing coloured smoke | Pearl or Quest?
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Water erosion and connectivity analysis during a year with high precipitations in a watershed of ...
Soil erosion is a global concern because of its consequences for the environment and the economy of countries. In the Argentine Pampas Region, soil erosion process is a priority issue, although there is little information about sediment concentration (SC) in agricultural catchments. The study aimed at assessing the factors that have a major influence on SC and discussing the dynamics of hydrological and sedimentological connectivity during 2012, a year with precipitation over the mean and significant erosive...