Environmental Managemnt Unit (EMU) SIDA Sindh, Pakistan

Sindh on–farm water management project environmental monitoring and avaluation

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Courtesy of Environmental Managemnt Unit (EMU) SIDA Sindh, Pakistan

Sindh On - Farm Water Management Project was introduced in Sindh province for improving and lining of 4,000 watercourses, with 60% within the three established Area Water Boards (AWBs) and 40% in other irrigated area of Sindh. And also improving and rehabilitating of 100 distributaries and 25 branch canals in three established AWBs. In addition of this, another related improving work of agricultural field in order to enhance agricultural product and yield for reducing poverty in Sindh province.

In order to reduce of losses of water along the watercourse reaches and also to control of water logging, rehabilitation work and lining of watercourses is under progress in Sindh province. During construction and rehabilitation works in the project area, some adverse environmental impacts develop which have to be addressed according to Environmental Guideline of World Bank for Sindh On- Form Water Management project.

In considering negative environmental impacts due to this project, the World Bank prepared the Environmental Guidelines for averting adverse environmental impacts during improving/modernizing works of distributaries/minors and lining of watercourses.

Need of Environmental of Monitoring & Evaluation:

During operation of projects’ works, the perturbation is being created in the project area due to movement of heavy machines, manpower, desilted material, cutting of trees, polluting waters and etc. These all activities happen cause of many adverse environmental issues and problems developing and is left without any address and mitigation measures. However, Government of Pakistan has made necessary for all capital works’ projects Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) according to Environmental Law. Also World Bank according to its Environmental Law has prepared Environmental Guideline for implementing Environmental management Plan. There is compulsory of EIA of the construction and rehabilitation works and lining of the projects. Therefore, it was envisaged that the environmental monitoring & evaluation of the project is necessary according to the environmental guideline of World Bank in which environmental non-compliance were mentioned that have to be got implemented.

Environmental Guidelines of World Bank:

The Environmental Guidelines was designed to support the implementation of Environmental management Plan of the Project. The Integrated Social and Environmental Assessment (ISEA) of the project area was carried out in which some adverse environmental impacts were identified that will be created during the construction and rehabilitation works of project. The Environmental Guidelines are designed for use by project contractors are obliged to apply the environmental mitigation measure, proposed in the guidelines during the project. According to the Environmental Guidelines of the World Bank, during project activities there are exposed to have on adverse impact on the environment.

List of Non- compliance
Environmental
Parameters Non-Compliance
Water

A. A. Washing bays and cattle baths not constructed
B. Washing bays and cattle battle baths not constructed according to design
B. C. Pest management plan not implementation
Soil/ land
C. D. Excavated earth/silt not properly disposed of
D. E. Standard Specifications not followed for borrowed earth
E. F. Temporary channels not restored

Protected Areas
G. Sindh Wild life Department permission not sought for rehabilitation work undertaken in protected are or within a 250 – m radius of the protected area
F. H. Non – compliance in a protected area,
Vegetation
I. Twice number of trees cut not planted
Human Displacement
J. Any human and/ or physical displacement is treated as major non-compliance.

K. Compensation;
(i). If given at the prevailing market rate, it is not non-compliance
(ii). If not compliance, it is a major non-compliance
(iii). In case compensation given below the prevailing market rate, it is a major non-compliance.






However, the Consultants were hired for monitoring and evaluation of the lining of watercourses and improving of distributaries/minors and branch canals for indicating the environmental non-compliances and their implementation according to the World Bank Environmental Guidelines and preparing reports and submit to concerned organizations/offices. The consultants M&E prepared 7 No. quarterly reports in which non-compliances graphs have been increasing smoothly. The World Bank envisaging, the gravity of non-compliances of adverse environmental impacts, during construction and rehabilitation works and not their implementation in the jurisdiction of SIDA. Therefore, World Bank assigned to EMU-SIDA the responsibility for environmental monitoring aspects of SIDA components and carrying out of tasks immediately.





Field Visit for environmental monitoring & evaluation

The filed visit was carried out of the following irrigation system which under rehabilitation/ construction works in Sindh On - Farm Water management project for monitoring and evaluating of major non- compliances according to Word Bank Environmental Guideline. The inventory of visited of Distributary/Minor was given as under and their observation of non- compliance are elaborated individually.

Name of Distributaries/Minors Visited dates
1. Shekhani Minor (LBC - AWB) 18-06-2007
2. Wangi Minor (LBC - AWB) 19-06-2007
3. 3CR Mitharo Water course 19-06-2007
4. 9Al- Sonda Water course (Non-AWB) 19-06-2007
5. Bhurghari Distributary (Nara AWB) 20-06-2007
6. Sohrab Distributary (Nara AWB) 20-06-2007
7. Bagi Minor (Nara- AWB) 21-06-2007
8. Akuto distributary (Nara- AWB) 21-06-2007
9. Digri 170/5l Jamrao water course (Nara -AWB) 21-06-2007
10. Potho Minor (Nara- AWB) 21-06-2007
11. Lalkan Distributary (Nara- AWB) 22-06-2007
12. 1RC Water course off takes Sifal Minor 25-06-2007
13. Hiran Distributary (Nara – AWB) 26–06-2007
14- Rawtani Minor (Nara - AWB) 28-06-2007
15. Sangi Minor (Gohtaki - AWB) 29–06-2007
16. Mehro Minor (Ghotaki - AWB) 30-06-2007



1. Visit of Shakhani Minor for environmental monitoring & evaluation (Left Bank – AWB)

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• The minor off takes from Sultani branch canal and also branch canal off takes main Fuleli canal and the contract of improving of the minor was awarded to the Contractor in line with NCBC agreement.
• The construction of cattle wallows and washing bays was not observed at any place along the reaches of the minor.
• The excavated earth/ desilted material was observed which was disposal off on inspection paths and non inspection paths without any dressing
• It was observed that no borrowed soil for establishing banks, berms and inspection paths.
• No plantation of twice numbers of trees on the place of cut down trees during rehabilitation works of the Minor.
• The major damages in banks, berms and prism of the Minor due to frequently visit and wallowing of buffaloes.
• During of meeting with Secretary of FO of the minor, it was observed that FO was lack of awareness about responsibility of implementation of rehabilitation of works and water management the informed that the contractor has left with after with work the and further work of rehabilitation is could not complete due to the contractor.
• Lack of technical support and awareness to the F O by PIA Consultants, AWB.





2. Visit of Wagi Minor for environmental monitoring & evaluation (Left Bank – AWB)


Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• The minor off takes Akram wah (Lining canal) and the contract of improving of the minor was awarded to the FO according CBC agreement.
• FO has got carried out excavated earth/ silting work the minor up to RD-5.
• the earth work of improving of the minor upto RD-5 was satisfactory
• The borrow soil was not used for establishing the banks, berms and inspection and inspection paths
• The construction of buffaloes’ wallows and washing bays were not observed.
• During the meeting with Chairman FOs he informed that the further work of improving of the minor was hampered due to not release of installment of funds the contract agreement.
• He also objected that the designed and building documents have been prepared without consultants of farmers.
• He complained about not awareness of technical help from AWB and the Consultant.



3. Visit of 3 CR Methan Watercourse for environmental monitoring & Evaluation (Left Bank – AWB)

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This watercourse off takes from Methan Minor and its contract was awarded to the Watercourses Association.
• It was observed that excavated material has been used for filling banks of water course and also dressed.
• The remaining excavated material has been disposed off in the field
• But plantation of trees of two numbers in the place of cut down trees could not implement.



4. Visit of 9AL – Sonda Watercourses (Non-AWB) Watercourse for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This watercourse off takes from Sonda Minor and its contract was awarded to the Watercourses Association.
• It was observed that excavated material has been used for filling banks of water- course and also dressed.
• The remaining excavated material has been disposed off in the field
• But plantation of trees of two numbers in the place of cut down trees could not implement.
• The excavated material has used for filling banks of watercourse and dressed, it was also observed stable banks due to development of vegetation.



5. Bhurrghari Distributary (Nara AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This distributary off takes from Mathrao canal and its contract was awarded to the Contractor according to NCBC agreement.
• it was observed that excavated silted material has been dumed over the inspection and path and non inspection path. And also it has been dressed as inspection path .
• The borrowed soil was not used for establishing of banks, berms and paths
• The plantations of two numbers of trees on the place of cut down trees could not implement
• The washing bay’s and buffalos’ wallows could not observed on any place along reaches of the distributary.
• During meeting with the Secretary of FO of distributary. It was observed the lack awareness of technical know-how and responsibility of FO.




6. Visit of Suhrab Distributary (Nara AWB) for environmental monitoring & evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This distributary off takes from Mathrao canal and its contract was awarded to the Contractor according to NCBC agreement.
• it was observed that excavated silted material has been dumped over the inspection and path and non inspection path. And also it has been dressed as inspection path.
• The borrowed soil was not used for establishing of banks, berms and paths
• The plantations of two numbers of trees on the place of cut down trees could not implement
• The washing bays and buffalos’ wallows could not observed on any place along reaches of the distributary.




7. Visit of Chatto Minor (Nara-AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This minor from Mathrao canal and the contract rehabilitation work was awarded to the FO.
• The excavated earth work of the minor was carried out which was maintained
• The excavated material was dumped over banks and paths of the minor.
• The washing bays and buffalos’ wallows could not observe on any place along reaches of the minor.
• The borrow soil was not used for stable of embankments berms of the minor.
• The implantation of plantation twice number of trees on the place of cut down trees.
• During the meeting with FO Chairman, he told that there were some impediments from AWB/SIA which cause of delay in implantation work.


8. Visit of Bagi Minor (Nara-AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This minor off takes from East branch Jamrao canal its contract of rehabilitation work was awarded to the FO through CBC agreement.
• During visit it was observed that earth work and maintenance of inspection & non-inspection paths was made
• The borrow land was not used for raising and stabling.
• The construction of washing bays, buffalo’s wallows was not observed
• The plantation of two number trees on the place of cut down was not observed.
• During meeting with the Secretary and treasurer of FO, demanded of redesigning of washing bays and cattle bathes for avoiding damages in infrastructure of the minor.


9. Visit of Akhuto Distributary (Nara AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• Akhuto distributary off takes from Methrao canal its contract was awarded to the contractor according to NCBC agreement contract.
• During visit, it was observed that the desilted material was dumped on inspection and non inspection paths.
• The borrow soil was not used for compaction of soil on the banks and paths
• The plantation of trees of two numbers on the place of cut down was not seen.
• The construction of washing bays and buffalos’ wallows not found.
• However, the work of rehabilitation work was some extent maintained.


10. Visit of Mir Minor (Nara-AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This minor off take from the west branch canal its contract rehabilitation work was awarded to the contractor according to NCBC agreement contract.
• It was observed that excavated earth work/ desilting was not made some places of the minor.
• The paths’ work of the minor was poor and also observed overtopping some place.
• The borrowed soil was not used for stabilizing banks and paths of the minor.
• It was observed that farmers were marooned about saving their crops. They were themselves raising banks of the minor.


11. Visit of Gorchani Minor (Nara-AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This minor off takes from best branch of Jamrao canal and its contract of rehabilitation work was awarded to the contractor.
• During visit, it was observed that excavated material has been dumped over impaction path and dressed but the non-inspection path same place humps of the silted m The borrowed soil was not used for stabilizing banks and paths of the minor.
• The borrowed material has been used for stabilizing banks and berms.
• The was no compliance on plantation of trees in place of cut down trees during rehabilitation work.


12. Visit of Potho Minor (Nara Canal AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• Potho minor off takes from the west branch canal and its rehabilitation of work minor was awarded to the contractor according to NCBC agreement contract.
• The excavated work/ desilted work of the minor was made
• The excavated material was dumped on the banks and paths
• The plantation of trees of two numbers on the place of cut down trees was observed.
• Not construction of buffalo’s wallows and washing bays were observed.
• The damages were observed along the minor due to frequently wallowing of buffalos and movement.



13. Visit of Lal Khan Distributary Nara – AWB) ) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This distributary off takes from Jamrao canal and its contract was awarded to the contractor according to NCBC agreement
• During visit of distributary, it was observed that the silted material has been dumped on the inspection and non inspection paths and dressed.
• The plantation of trees on places of cut down tree not found
• and even no constructed buffalos wallows was seen in any place of minor.
• The buffalos have damaged rehabilitated prism, beams and banks of the distributaries.


14. Visit of Hiran Distributary (Nara-AWB) ) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:


• This distributary off takes from Jamrao canal of rehabilitation work and its contract was awarded to the contract according to NCBC agreement.
• During visit, it was observed that the excavated earth/ desilted material was dumped on the inspection and non-inspection paths
• And not followed standard specifications for burrowed earth.
• The plantation of two numbers on the places of cut down trees was not observed.


15. Rawtain Minor (Nara-AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This minor off takes from Dim branch canal and its contract of improving/rehabilitation works was awarded to the contractor.
• The jointly visit was carried out by Deputy Director (Water Recourse), EMU-SIDA about environmental monitoring and evaluations of rehabilitation works of the minor.
• During visit it was observed that the desilting of the minor was not made. According to site Engineer of the contract told only ploughing has been done for desilting of minor.
• And not borrowed soil was used for raising banks and maintaining of inspection & non-inspection paths.
• The washing bays have been constructed but buffalo’s wallows could not constructed. Therefore, buffalos have damaged the banks , berms and prism of the minor.


16. Visit of Metro Minor (Ghotki AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This minor off takes from Ghotki Feeder canal and its contract of rehabilitation was awarded to the FO according to CBC agreement.
• The jointly visit was contract by representative of SIDA and MMP consultants for environmental monitoring and evaluation of the minor.
• During visit, it was observed that, excavated of earth/ desilted material
was under progress and desilted material was being over the banks of the minor.
• but also envisaged that earth of work was not made according to D-Statement of the minor.
• The plantation of two numbers on the places of cut down trees was not observed.

16. Visit of Sangi Minor (Ghotki AWB) for environmental monitoring & Evaluation

Observations for implementation of non- compliance:

• This minor off takes from Ghotki Feeder canal and its contract of rehabilitation was awarded to the FO according to CBC agreement.
• The rehabilitation work of the minor has not been started due to lack of coordination among FO, AWB and SIDA for releasing funds
• There is a dire need of awareness to Farmers/ Stakeholders.


SUGGESTIONS/ RECOMMANDATION:

1. To raise awareness among farmers/stakeholders for implementation of non – compliance from environmental perspective during constructions / Rehabilitation works.
2. Farmers Organizations are unaware about rules of NBC contracts. Therefore, they could understand who is responsible for implementation of modernization/ rehabilitation works.
3. The works carried out under CBC contracts which was awarded to FOs contractors are better quality.
4. Buffalos’ wallows may be constructed in all CBC & NCB contracts for damaging banks, berms and prisms of channels. It also helps flow/ regulation.
5. The washing bays may be constructed under CBC & NBC contracts
6. Excavated earth material may be dispose off out side according to bidding & designing documents and the borrowed soil may be used according to designing document for reducing environmental non-compliances.
7. Desilting was not done properly according to designing statement and contracts. Silted material may be dispose off in safe place.
8. Farmers may be provided copies of all the documents including bidding and designing document, CBC & NCB Contracts.
9. The contractors of CBC/ NBC may be bound that without implementation environmental non- compliances, the funds will not release to the contractors.
10. The contractors of CBC/ NBC are obliged for plantation of twice trees on the place of cut down trees.
11. To train about addressing adverse environmental impacts related water sector to formers stalk holders.
12. The Agricultural extension department may be communicated for imparting training farmers for Integrated Pest Management
13. Implementation agencies may play their roles for getting environmental non-compliance according to World Bank guide lines.
14. Guide lines may be provided to farmers about their responsibilities.
15. Contracts may be awarded to FOs instead to contractors for better implementation of non-compliances.
16. The documents may be provided i.e Directory of formation of Farmers Organizations, Designing and bidding of CBC and NCB contracts to EMU-SIDA for keeping update information about rehabilitation/ construction works in order to environmental monitoring & evaluation.


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