Siting and Safe Operation of Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities

Regulations require facilities to use computer simulations to model potential fire and explosion hazards from accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. This has required the run of several separate computer models and manual transfer of data among the models, which is a time-consuming process prone to errors. The Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR 193) defines safety standards for LNG facilities covered by federal pipeline safety laws. It addresses protection in the vicinity of LNG storage and transfer systems by specifying the models used to calculate exclusion zones for thermal and vapor hazards. The models specified are LNGFIRE3 for thermal radiation protection and DEGADIS for air dispersion calculations. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) sponsored development of the LNGFIRE3 model as well as the LNG-specific SOURCE5 model that predicts the spread and vaporization rate of LNG spills. Output from the SOURCE5 model is compatible with DEGADIS, making the combination of the two models useful for ensuring compliance with 49 CFR 193. SOURCE5, DEGADIS and LNGFIRE3 can be run on typical personal computers.

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