Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: Part 1 — Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGVs)

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Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) emitted from lightduty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) was characterized using
filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size measurements in the summer 2002. Thirty LDGVs, with different engine and emissions control technologies (model years 1965–2003; odometer readings 1264–207,104 mi), were tested on a chassis dynamometer using the federal test procedure (FTP), the unified cycle (UC), and the correction cycle (CC). LDGV PM emissions were strongly correlated with vehicle age and emissions control technology. The oldest models had average ultrafine PM0.1 (0.056- to 0.1-microm aerodynamic diameter) and fine PM1.8 (below 1.8-microm aerodynamic diameter) emission rates of 9.6 mg/km and 213 mg/km, respectively. The newest vehicles had PM0.1 and PM1.8 emissions of 51 microg/km and 371 microg/km, respectively. Light duty trucks and sport utility vehicles had PM0.1 and PM1.8 emissions nearly double the corresponding emission rates from passenger cars. Higher PM emissions were associated with cold starts and hard accelerations. The FTP driving cycle produced the lowest emissions, followed by the UC and the CC. PM mass distributions peaked between 0.1- and 0.18-m particle diameter for all vehicles except mthose emitting visible smoke, which peaked between 0.18 and 0.32m. The majority of the PM was composed of carbonaceous material, with only trace amounts of watersoluble ions. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic matter (OM) had similar size distributions, but the EC/OM ratio in LDGV exhaust particles was a strong function of the adopted emissions control technology and of vehicle maintenance. Exhaust from LDGV classes with lower PM emissions generally had higher EC/OM ratios. LDGVs adopting newer technologies were characterized by the highest EC/OM ratios, whereas OM dominated PM emissions from older vehicles. Driving cycles with cold starts and hard accelerations produced higher EC/OM ratios in ultrafine particles.

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