The Issue: The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) mandated soil and groundwater sampling under an active pharmaceutical company manufacturing building in order to address vapor intrusion inside the building. Installation of vertical borings and wells through the building slab was not practicable without profound disruption of manufacturing activities inside the building. Soil conditions under the large building slab were unknown, presenting potential problems for either vertical or horizontal drilling. Groundwater sampling below building slabs is frequently required in order to assess groundwater remediation requirements for protecting indoor air quality. Subslab soil sampling and soil vapor extraction may likewise be required to manage vapor intrusion into a building.