John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Sorption kinetics of TNT and RDX in anaerobic freshwater and marine sediments: Batch studies

Examining the partitioning of explosives onto sediment in marine environments is critical to predict the toxicological impacts of worldwide explosive‐contaminated sites adjacent to estuaries, wetlands, and the coastal ocean. Marine sediments have been identified as sites of enhanced munitions removal, yet most studies addressing these interactions focus on soils and freshwater sediments. This study measures the kinetics of 2,4,6‐trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydo‐1,3,5‐trinitro‐1,3,5‐triazine (RDX) sorption onto two marine sediments of varying grain‐sizes (silt vs. sand) and organic carbon (OC) content. Abiotic sediment sorption tests were performed at 23 °C, 15 °C and 4 °C by spiking TNT and RDX solutions directly into anaerobic sediment slurries. Marine sediments showed significantly higher compound uptake rates (0.30 ‐ 0.80 hr−1) than freshwater silt (0.0046–0.0065 hr−1) for both compounds likely because of lower compound solubilities and a higher pH in marine systems. Equilibrium partition constants are on the same order of magnitude for marine silt (1.1–2.0 Lkg−1sed) and freshwater silt (1.4–3.1 Lkg−1sed) but lower for marine sand (0.72 ‐ 0.92 Lkg−1sed). Total organic carbon content in marine sediments varied linearly with equilibrium partition constants for TNT and moderately linear for RDX. Uptake rates and equilibrium constants of explosives are inversely correlated to temperature regardless of sediment type because of kinetic barriers associated with low temperatures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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